Inhalation, ingestion, skin, and/or eye contact. In this project, Phthalic Anhydride would be produced through a catalytic oxidation reaction involving o-xylene and oxygen from air according to the following reactions: (1) 10. More elaborate examples of bisanhydrides include (251; R = CPh2) which, when polymerized with aryldiamines, gave polyether–polyimides useful for the manufacture of heat and moisture resistant optical disks 〈90JAP(K)0251527〉. The patient had two episodes of severe hemolytic anemia after two re-exposures, even with a period without exposure in between. It was reported to cause multiple types of cancers on animal models (Dunnick & Hailey, 1996). It was prepared from 4,7-dimethylbenzofuran (271) and was found to have a band gap of 2.76 eV. So in the first instance you get ethanoic acid and an organic compound called an amide. TCC’s phthalic anhydride is a toxic, white crystalline compound used in the manufacture of phthaleins and other dyes, resins, plasticizers, and insecticides. As with isocyanates, accurate diagnosis requires assessment of occupational exposure hazards and working practices, as well as conventional investigation of asthma. Thus, this molecule is a three-way pi-molecular switch with closed/closed, open/open, and open/closed switch states, two of which can be controlled thermally or photochemically. There are over 40 adducts of 334 in the Cambridge Crystallographic Database. Once the structure of the phthalocyanine nucleus had been determined, more direct methods for their synthesis were developed. 10 | P a g e The vanadium pentoxide catalyst is supported mainly with ceramics or silicon carbide. The main reaction of interest is the partial oxidation of cumene to produce phthalic anhydride: This reaction can be carried out heterogeneously (using a solid catalyst). Several case reports have been described, including asthmatic responses possibly related to maleic anhydride exposures. This page explains what acid anhydrides are and looks at their simple physical properties such as boiling points. Inhalation Remove to fresh air. Pyromellitic dianhydride (246) has been used often, for example, in the preparation of membranes for liquid separation 〈91EUP418883〉. Naphthodifuran 339 <2003JOC8373> was one of several isobenzofurans employed in the preparation of pi-molecular switches (Scheme 3). Phthalic anhydride is the anhydride of phthalic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. These partial glycerides react with dibasic acids or acid anhydrides forming a polyester resin to which pendant fatty acid groups are attached (Figure 15). Missed the LibreFest? A process for the preparation of nitrophthalic acid by the nitration of phthalic acid and/or phthalic anhydride using only nitric acid, said nitric acid having a concentration of at least about 95% by weight, and then recovering the nitrophthalic acid formed from the nitric acid solution. Metal complexes can be prepared by the addition of a metal ion to the free ligand (1) (M = 2H+ ), or by transmetalation using labile complexes containing alkali-metal ions (e.g., Li2(1) or Na2(1)). Tetrabromophthalic anhydride (244) has been used to prepare flame-retardant bisphthalimides as polymer additives 〈90JAP(K)02145568〉. This research presents the possibility of producing polyester (glyptal), which is a widely used coating material, from glycerol by esterification using phthalic anhydride. g Consists of phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride. Phthalic anhydride is used in the synthesis of primary amines, the agricultural fungicide phaltan, and thalidomide. In this case, the "X" in the equations above is a hydrogen atom. In contrast to isocyanates, immune reactions against acid anhydrides appear to involve IgE antibodies and, therefore, occupational asthma to acid anhydrides is more common in those who are predisposed to make IgE. In addition to asthma, acid anhydrides can cause a hypersensitivity pneumonitis. K.M. Grind 15 g of phthalic anhydride and 22 g. of resorcinol together and transfer the mixture to a conical flask. Smith, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry, 1984. In addition, it is also used to prepare bisanhydrides useful as polyimide monomers. In many occupational situations, workers are exposed to either maleic anhydride or other similar compounds included in the group of acid anhydrides, including phthalic anhydride and trimellitic anhydride. Phenolphthalein itself (213) and substituted derivatives were polymerized with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile to form heat-resistant polycyanoaryl ethers 〈89JAP(K)01225631〉. Structure of a typical alkyd resin.75. It was the first anhydride of a dicarboxylic acid to be used commercially. Have questions or comments? The latter method exploits the solubility of alkali-metal Pcs in polar solvents.18 The synthetic connectivities between these various precursors are shown in Scheme 1. Bisanhydride (252), prepared from styrene and maleic anhydride, is useful as a hardener for epoxy resins, and as a polyester and polyimide monomer 〈91JAP(K)03264574〉. Fatty acid. From: Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014, S.C. Gad, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. Phenolphthalein derivatives 3′,3″,5′,5″-tetrabromophenolphthalein and 3′,3″,5′,5″-tetraiodophenolphthalein are more potent with IC50 values of 33 and 120 nM, respectively (Higaki et al., 2003). Reaction with the amino groups gave … Copper(II) phthalocyanine (406) is prepared by reacting phthalonitrile (407) with copper(I) chloride, and the same route can be used for other metal chelates. Brian A. Keay, Peter W. Dibble, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II, 1996. Due to its high reactivity in Diels–Alder reactions and the crystallinity of its adducts, the commercially available 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran 334 is often the reagent of choice for trapping and characterizing reactive, transient alkenes. Go To: Top, References, Notes Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved. Consequently, most patients with occupational asthma to acid anhydrides will have some background tendency toward allergy and asthma as well as being current smokers. Diol (280) has been used as an alternative to bisphenol A in the preparation of thermoplastic polyethers with good fire- and heat-resistant properties 〈89EUP329029〉. Go To: Top, Phase change data, Reaction thermochemistry data, Gas phase ion energetics data, IR Spectrum, Mass spectrum (electron ionization), UV/Visible spectrum, References, Notes Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved.

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